Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth. This is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such nation. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resources. Much then is said that formal education remains the vehicle for socio-economic, psychological and environmental development of any society. When we come to think of students, they are the ones who learn ideas to become more responsible and productive someday. Students from the rich and the poor, especially those in Agusan National High School are affected by myriad of factors. Examples of those factors are socio-economic, psychological and environmental factors.
Socio-economic factors are believed to be the common factors affecting student's academic performance. They have been suffering and socio-economic gap between families (Johnson, 1996), lamented that parents become poor due to these hard measure, such that they can no longer adequately for good education of their children. High level of illiteracy, and poverty and low socio-economic status complied with high rate of paternal and material deprivation of student academic needs, which was necessitated by poor socio-economic situation. Home background according to PISA (Programme Internation Student Assement, 2000) influences academic and educational success of students and school work, while socio-economic status reinforces the activities and functioning of the students.
Psychological factors also give a big impact on student's performance. One of these is street hawking among students. Danesy and Okediran (2002) elaborated that street hawking among students have psychologically imposed other problems, like sex networking behavior, juvenile sequent behavior, which takes much of the school time that necessited the poor academic performance and drop out syndrome among students.
Environmental factors also influence academic performance. Learning environment is one. The learning environment that is free of barriers, or obstacles or distractions such as noise, gas/smoke pollutions and so on can constitute health hazards, which in return affect or reduce student's concentration or perceptive or conceptive focus to learning (Sprinthall, 1987).
Review of Related Literature
Education in its broadest meaning is any process by which an individual gains knowledge an insight or develops attitudes or skills. It is an experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual, and in its technical sense education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, values, skills from one generation to another generation (Holmes, 1971). The function of education is both social and individual. Its social function is to help each individual become more effective member of society by passing along to him the collective experience of the past and the present. Its individual function is to enable him to lead a more satisfying and productive life by preparing him to handle new experience successfully (Sadler, 1966).
Students are individuals who accumulate knowledge with the help of the teachers. The learning experience accumulated in school will serve as his bridge to overcome life's circumstances and eventually becomes a more effective member of the society.
Many empirical studies are carried out to determine the factors affecting student's academic performance. All of the research reviews support the hypothesis that student's academic performances depend on different socio-economic, psychological, and environmental factors. Such as poverty because it is concluded that poverty is an important factor accounting for differences in performance and achievement across rural, sub-urban and urban districts (United States Department of Education, 2000). Some of the researches even tried to explain the relationship between student's achievements, economic circumstances and risk of becoming a drop-out that proved to be positive (Goldman et. al, 1988 and Pallas et. al, 1986). Chansarkar and Mischaeloudis (2001), explain the effects of age qualification distance from learning place on student's performance. The academic performance of students on the module is not influenced by factors such as age, gender, and place of residence but is related with qualification in quantitative subjects. It has been found out that those who live near the school perform much better than other students.
Walkers and Soyibo (1998) further elaborated that student's performance is very much dependent on SEB (Socio-economic background) as per their statement, " High School Student's level of performance is with statistically significant differences, linked to their gender, year level, school and location and type, kind of student and socio-economic background (SEB)".
Goethals (2001) found out that weak students do better when grouped with other weak students. As implied by Zonjonc (1976) that students of their own kind help them to improve their performance.
Socerdoke (2001) found out that grades are higher when students have unusually academically strong study partner.
The findings of Zimmerman (1991, 2001) where somewhat contradictory to Goethals results but again is proved that student's performance depends on number of different factors; it says that the weak peers might reduce the grades of middling or strong students.
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
The factors that affects student's performance are complex and numerous. Hence, the researchers only chose those that commonly encountered by students.
Socio-economic Factors are social and economic aspects that influence not only students but also the people from the different walks of life. It includes Family Background, Financial Income, Position in the society and many more.
Psychological Factors are factors that are determined based on the behavior and mental state of a person. The indicators include Attitude towards School, Attendance in School, Time Allocation and Study Habits, Quality of teachers and Quality of Classmates and Friends.
Environmental Factors are based on the external conditions and circumstances that surround the students. The indicators include Health Condition, Home Environment and Learning Environment.
But among all these factors, Walkers and Soyibo (1998) further elaborated that the student's performance is very much dependent on ESEB (socio-economic background). The factors and the students are interlinked. As to the students so as to the factors, both runs a well-known epigram. The factors reinforce the activities and functioning of the students.
Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of The Study
Statement of the Problem
The study aims to determine the factors that affect Student's academic performance in Agusan National High School.
More specifically, the study purports to clevle answer to the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the student respondents in terms of:
c. Year Level/ Curriculum
2. What are the problems that affect student's academic performance along the following factors:
a. Socio-economic factors
b. Psychological factors
c. Environmental factor
3. What is the factor that greatly affects student's academic performance in Agusan National High School?
4. Is there a significant difference between the factors that affect student's academic performance in Agusan National High School?
Ho: There is no significant difference between the factors that affects student's academic performance in Agusan National High School.
Ha: There is a significant difference between the factors that affect student's academic performance in Agusan National High School.
Significance of the Study
The findings accumulated by this study may provide significant benefits to the following groups or individuals:
School Administrators. They will be able to determine on how big difference they can make on the student's academic performance. They can make ways to help students excel in their studies. For example, they can conduct school services, activities, academic programs and seminars that can be a sure fit solution to the student's problems influencing their studies and performance.
Teachers. They can better understand why such student's performance is like that. They will be able to help students cope with their studies in spite of the factors affecting it.
Parents. They will be able to realize their role on their children's academic performances. They will be able to guide them on their studies especially their performance in school. For example, they can do this through counseling them and spending time teaching them their lessons.
Students. They will be able to know the factors that affect their academic performance. Thus, they will be able to manage their situations. This study will serve as a reason for them to be more serious with their studies in spite of the factors affecting it.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study focuses mainly on the factors that affect student's academic performance in Agusan National High School. The respondents in this study are 50 students. The respondents are asked to fill up the data in the survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire is composed of two sections. The introductory section includes basic questions used to identify the socio-demographic profiles of students. The second section of the survey questionnaire addresses the statements and questions under each factors mostly encountered by students. Student respondents are asked to indicate their most appropriate rating for each item. The statements are intended to capture the effects of factors that mostly affects students academic performance.
Definition of Terms
To constitute general comprehension, the terms were operationally defined for better understanding and justification of the study.
Socio-economic Factors. The term that refers to the social and economic aspects that influences student's academic performance. According to researches, it is the most common factor affecting student's academic performance.
Psychological Factors. The term that refers to the behavior and mental state of the students and the people around him/her which affects his/her study.
Environmental Factors. The term that refers to the external and circumstances that surrounds the student that influences his/her performance.
Student's Performance. The term that refers to the efficiency and efficacy of the functioning of students in such way to determine whether it is poor or good.